Wine tasting is the art of understanding , memorizing and appreciating all the messages offered to the sight , nose and mouth . Finally, to the spirit .
The visual examination of the wine is carried out by observing the color , clarity , consistency and vivacity . Wine is clear when it is free of suspended particles , opalescences or numbness, due to acetic fermentation or other defects, alterations or real diseases. Mostly the wines on the market are perfectly clear, thanks to filtering and stabilizing treatments . Clarity is assessed by bringing the glass to eye level and observing it against the light.
By tilting the glass at 45 °, the color and nuances can be examined. In the central part of the glass, which is thicker, the intensity of the color is observed and in the outermost part, called the wine nail , the tonality and any nuances are appreciated. The chromatic aspects depend primarily on the type of grape : the coloring substances, the polyphenols , are always contained in the skins, but vary in type and quantity
according to the grape variety .
Other influencing factors on color and intensity are the pedo-climatic environment (soil, climate, etc.), the winemaking and aging techniques and, above all, the evolutionary state of the wine. By swirling the wine in the glass it is possible to evaluate its consistency, that is the different fluidity or density it assumes in the presence of alcoholic components (ethanol, glycerol). A thick crown of tears tends to form on the vine-covered walls that draws, falling, as many arches. The more this phenomenon is marked, the more consistent the wine is. A wine with a good dowry of consistency suggests a taste rich in warmth, softness and structure. The vivacity , or brightness, of the color is a precious indicator of the state of health of the wine.
In the case of sparkling or sparkling wines , in which carbon dioxide is present, the quality of the effervescence is observed, which is greater the more the " perlage " shows fine-grained bubbles capable of lasting for a long time, accentuating the brilliance of the color, enhancing the aromas and giving delicately pungent and fresh sensations in the mouth.