Wine is a product obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of the grape must. This in turn comes from freshly pressed grapes. The fermentation is caused by the yeasts present in the grapes which transform the sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide: hence the "bubbling" of the must which, once fermentation is complete, is transformed into wine. Subsequent processes, aging in barrels or vats and then bottling, will give the wine its flavor, its alcohol content, its taste, and its aroma.
The organoleptic characteristics of a wine, decisive for obtaining the DOC (Controlled Designation of Origin) and the DOCG (Controlled and Guaranteed Designation of Origin) essentially depend on the vine or vines from which it comes, the climatic conditions and those of the soil, the correct choice of grapes at the time of harvest.
These characteristics are defined by means of a series of specific terms, the best known of which are listed below. Abboccato: wine in which there is a sweet taste. Acid: young wine, not yet fully ripe. Astringent: a wine which, when tasted, "binds" the mouth. Amabile: almost sweet wine, with a pleasant taste, thanks to the presence of sugars not yet transformed into alcohol. Sour: wine characterized by a rough and acid taste. Full-bodied: well-structured wine with a high percentage of extracts (sugars, acids, glycerin, salts, etc.) and with an accentuated alcohol content. Fresh: wine that leaves a sensation of freshness in the mouth. Fruity: young wine with a strong fruit flavor. Soft: wine that has a balanced sugar content, pleasant on the palate. Sapid: wine with a lively flavor. Dry: wine that has completed its fermentation, whereby the sugars have turned into alcohol. Tannic: a very dry wine that leaves a "clean" sensation in the mouth. Velvety: wine that leaves a soft and pleasant sensation on the palate, due to the right glycerin content.