Fruit of the orange tree, a tree that was imported from the East to the Mediterranean area at the beginning of the 12th century and initially cultivated in the Iberian Peninsula. From here it was then spread to Italy, where today it thrives especially in the South and on the islands. The orange can have a round or oval shape; it is composed of the peel or epicarp, of a color ranging from orange to red, of a second internal peel which is called mesocarp and is made up of a thin membrane that wraps the cloves. These - generally eight - are arranged in a radial pattern and represent the pulpiest and the juicy portion of the fruit.
There are 2 species of orange: the sweet one and the bitter one. The dessert is classified under the name of "Citrus Aurantium" and its fruits may have light pulp and are known as "navel orange", or with red-vinous pulp and juice, in this case, they are called "blood orange". The "Vanilla", "Belladonna", "Ovale Calabrese" varieties belong to the first category. The second category includes better-known oranges such as "Tarocco", "Sanguinello" and "Moro". In addition to being a real fruit, the orange is widely used in confectionery, liqueur, and also in the canning industry.